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Multifunctional Nanostructures for Tumor-Targeted Molecular Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Multifunctional Nanostructures for Tumor-Targeted Molecular Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy


Abstract 

Glioblastoma, an extremely aggressive malignant tumor, is the most common brain cancer in adults.[1] Patients with glioblastoma have a lower survival rate than other cancers because it transfers and recurs frequently.[2] Conservative surgical operation is still one of the therapy methods, which requires precise diagnosis and effective treatment to identify and cure brain cancer.[3] Multifunctional nanoprobes with highly integrated modalities have great potential on glioblastoma diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutics.[4] A great number of multifunctional nanoprobes have been reported for accurate tumor theranostics. For instance, magnetic graphene oxide carrying epirubicin, and gold shelled iron oxide nanoclusters with polyethylene were studied for multimodal imaging and therapy.[5] To date, the most frequently reported multifunctional nanoprobe is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-optical agent, which can provide excellent 3D anatomical information of soft tissues with high resolution, and good sensitivity of imaging at the cellular level.[6,7] The combination of different imaging modalities and therapeutics may be used to identify and treat tumors simultaneously.[ 3] Multifunctional nanoprobes have a long blood circulation time because of their small nanosizes[8] and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect,[9] and thus enhance the tumor-targeting efficiency. Floate,[10] peptide,[11] and antibody fragments[12] have been used as targeting moieties integrated into a single nanocomposite for targeted tumor theranostics.

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